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Basics of htaccess with examples

.htaccess is short for Hypertext Access.
.htaccess has no file name and it starts with a period and ends with the extension.
.htaccess file is a configuration file used by Apache based web servers, and is used for configuring the details of your website without altering the server configuration files.
The file is a hidden plain text file and is used to control the directory in which it resides, as well as the subdirectories below.

Example functionalities of .htaccess:

  • Ability to  block specific IP address from being able to view your website
  • create and use custom error pages
  • Create a clean and friendly URL
  • Domain redirects
  • Disable directory listing
  • Hiding file extension

The ability to  block/ban specific IP address

Block individual IP address:

order allow, deny
deny from 192.168.110.100
deny from 235.70.120.110 
deny from 131.12.168.85 
allow from all

Block a range of IP address:

order allow, deny
deny from 192.168.
deny from 110.1.1.
allow from all

Create and use custom error pages

  • 400 – Bad request
  • 401 – Authorization Required
  • 403 – Forbidden
  • 404 – File Not Found
  • 500 – Internal Server Error
ErrorDocument 400 /errors/badrequest.html
ErrorDocument 401 /errors/authreq.html
ErrorDocument 403 /errors/forbidden.html
ErrorDocument 404 /errors/filenotfound.html
ErrorDocument 500 /errors/internalservererror.html

Disable directory listing  

Options All -Indexes

Domain redirect ie. olddomain.com to www.newdomain.com

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^olddomain.com
RewriteRule (.*) http://www.newdomain.com/$1 [R=301,L]

Hiding file extension

http://www.mywebsite.com/index.html  to  http://www.mywebsite.com/index

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^([^/.]+)/?$ $1.html

Create a clean and friendly URL

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9]+)$ index.php?page=$1
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9]+)/$ index.php?page=$1

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